Noam Chomsky proposed his ■→Language Acquisition Device to explain human language learning. People are most flexible to acquire language until some 14 years old; nobody is able merely to memorize language, and there has to be a logical capacity that works in the process. We can name it a device.
Dictionaries have a device for something devised, or a faculty that devises. Everyday language yet has a device for a thing that could be operated externally, from the outside. Association with such governance could not be my ideal.
Most of the 20th century, people insisted on specialization. Researchers had to work the particular, or were rejected as unscientific. Linguistics was separate from psychology, as neurology was from endocrine knowledge. Human speech was stated to belong with two brain areas, ■→Broca and ■→Wernicke.
Let us view Wernicke and Broca along with brain gnostic areas. ■→Henry Gray had the type of tissue for “psychic”.
Areas of localization, hemisphere lateral surface: motor area in red; general sensations in blue; auditory area in green; visual area in yellow; psychic portions are in lighter tints.
■→Source: Gray; Wikimedia.
Why name the areas “gnostic” or “psychic”? For the senses, as hearing, eyesight, or touch, the brain uses primarily two types of tissue. The primary sensory cortex receives sense data. It works very similar in most people. It is with the secondary sensory cortex that a primary area “translates” sense data into “brain codes” that work in thinking. These may be very different among people.
The secondary cortex is called “psychic” or “gnostic” because it has sensory knowledge the way a particular person has developed it. The Greek word gnosis means knowledge. The word gnostic derives from it. A baker view to bread is different from the look a buyer gives it. A painter may appreciate a landscape in tint, and a farmer in crops. Two bakers, artists, or farmers are likely to have two individual pictures. To an extent, human sensory knowledge is person-specific and psychological.
Broca and Wernicke do not work in isolation. They work with brain broader cytostructure. We derive the word shape “cyto-” from Greek, for a bodily cell. Wernicke works with parietal, occipital, and temporal types of gray matter.
The convention is to recognize four major regions of gray.
Image based on ■→Gray, Wikimedia Commons.
These major brain areas do not work as standalone “units” either, and humans have evolved language in earthly reality. Without any thought to time and space, human languages would become so different that maybe we would not have them for human anymore.
The limbic system is part in human orienting responses of psychological components, as in the decision making when we look around, pick up a text, choose to abandon it or to read on. Limbic feedback with the frontal lobes is part our awareness of ourselves.
The brainstem relays for the gray tissue, as well as the autonomic nervous system. It is very important in cognitive mapping. The mapping is part in our building own egos and language skills.
Blausen, Wikimedia ■→Creative Commons license BY 3.0.
I prefer the notion of a human language faculty, over the Language Acquisition Device. Language skill needs the brain entire, and that regardless of age.
Feel welcome to read,
■→1. Neurophysiology of feedback
Notes for Emily Dickinson’s poetry
Fascicles and print, the poetic correlative with Webster 1828, Latin and Greek inspiration, an Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity. More→
Life | Love | Nature | Time and Eternity
We are well into the 21st century now. Language and psychology have gotten along together well, as psycholinguistics. The discipline emerged in the second half of the 20th century, heart and reason against behaviorism. Even if our knowledge on human brains and languages is very general, we can comprehend this simple argument.
The brain does not have a singular superior structure we could call “the boss”. Brains make inner networks. One time, one network or its part is more active. Another time, it is another network or part of a network.
Whether to invoke a soul, a personality, or brain ■→epiphenomenon (when extremely tired), the human person orients and re-orients for own activity without a permanently dominant gyrus or sulcus. To entertain a political metaphor, brain structures would be more of a democracy. There is no king or queen tissue to preside.
The above is neither to ■→refute, nor to ■→aver on spirituality. As a broken leg is no proof the human never could walk, brain injury is no evidence there is nothing more to human heads than tissue. The other way round, runner or dancer legs are no evidence the person could walk just anywhere. As a vista is not the true landscape, human thought is not an immortal or eternal mind.
Brains make inner networks within human individual experience, also for purely intellectual experience. There is no universal way to see, hear, feel, or think, and behaviorist methods, that is, stimulation, may provide fragmentary features — yet unable to explain proficient language skill. Quality would be too much to give up on.
Resource for Emily Dickinson’s poetry
The epsilon, predicate structure, vowel contour, phonemics, person reference in abstract thought, and altogether stylistic coherence, for manuscripts and print piece-by-piece. More→
Life | Love | Nature | Time and Eternity
This is why I do not see sense in recognizing “devices” in the brain and scanning them for parameters. Proficiency can be attained only via learning, never via a physiological or physical mend. Infant brain scans for example, cannot tell anything about the very same person’s language skill in just a few years. Feel welcome to read:
■→Apples on noses.
There is yet sense to make logic that human brains can use. Here is some grammar tactics for American English,
■→Grammar Weblog, Travel in Grammar.
The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
■→PDF Free Access, Internet Archive;
Electronic format 2.99 USD
■→E-pub | NOOK Book | Kindle;
Soft cover, 260 pages, 16.89 USD
■→Amazon | Barnes & Noble;
Hard cover, 260 pages, 21.91 USD
■→Barnes & Noble | Lulu.
Knowledge gains with good translation
■→Public Domain Translation
© & CC FROM AMERICAN ENGLISH TO POLISH
Świat może i nigdy nie widział jej oryginalnego pisma, jeśli jej umiejętność została wzięta za nadnaturalną. Zapraszam do Wierszy Emilii Dickinson w przekładzie Teresy Pelka: zwrotka tematyczna, notki o inspiracji greką i łaciną, korelacie z Websterem 1828 oraz wątku arystotelesowskim, Rzecz perpetualna — ta nie zasadza się na czasie, ale na wieczności.
■→PDF w Internet Archive;
■→E-pub 2.99 USD;
■→268 stron, 21.91 USD.