Language is a prerequisite for human reasoning abilities, and neural processing has been evidenced in natural language learning as well as use. Human parsing for language can be regarded as human processing of information, where terms as a system, program, and option, though correlative with computer science, are not to serve close a correspondence, since natural language as a capacity remains unmatched by artificial intelligence. Therefore, human neurophysiology is the primary reference for the following discourse on the role of feedback in human language command.

Living organisms use DNA-encoded information, for growth and sustention. These genetic codes have been compared to programs (Young, 1984), where a program may be understood as a systematic plan for an automatic solution of a problem (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989). Biological life forms depend on structure continual regeneration, for function (Young, 1984); therefore, the task of homeostasis uphold, to require inner biochemical selection and exchange, can be example of a biological problem in context with natural programs as hitherto described.

The systemic selection and exchange to concern the single cell and structures as complex as human beings, DNA patterns for active protein production have been acknowledged as biological programs. Even basic sequences for cellular activity do rely on feedback for enactment (Vander et al., 1985), feedback in information processes to have been defined as returning of part the output of a system to be reintroduced as input (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989).

Positive and negative feedback types have been recognized, where the former, also known as regenerative feedback, aids the input, whereas the latter opposes it, hence the alternate term, “inverse feedback”. Elementary cellular outputs to accrue into schemata that allow learned behaviors, integrated neural patterns can be posited to rely on feedback for formation, effectuation, and permanence.

With reference to control in routine operations, Norbert Wiener insisted that feedback phenomena belonged with neuroscience as well. Neurophysiologically and psychologically, feedback productiveness can be understood as a closed-loop capability over open-loop sequences (Puppel, 1988, 1996). No less than a requirement by the nervous system, intrinsic feedback must be of effect in natural speech and language. The nervous system is studied for feedback phenomena in cellular, inter-cellular, and inter-schematic dimensions, with regard to speech and language generally.

For a competent view to natural language, the inquiry refers to human communication as well. Psycholinguistics to be the framework for the intended pursuit, feedback phenomena are studied in language acquisition and use, the discourse further to focus on human language faculty repair or compensation. Natural and principled occurrence to become affirmed for human neural and psychological function, feedback reliance can be argued to approximate a drive, the relevant instinct to be that for self-preservation. In the view to human information processing, feedback would be an initiating, mediating, and modeling factor.


■Chapter 1. Neurophysiology of feedback 1.1. Feedback in the single neuron; 1.2. Space and time in intercellular communication; 1.3. Human systemic dynamics; 1.4. A human reflex arc; 1.5. Human reflex and voluntary behavior; 1.6. Relevant neuromotor patterning; 1.7. Human pooling of sensory information; 1.8. The pool model for human homeostasis; 1.9. Signal specificity and the human brain; 1.10. Conclusions.

Natural language remains as a capacity unmatched by artificial parsing. Sophia is only an input-output device, capable of trading lexical items and responding with verbal routines.

I have never been interested in robotics and Sophia remains an it to me, a thing with a female name. I do not understand why the United Arab Emirates granted citizenship to an emulation of human personality.


The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
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Świat może i nigdy nie widział jej oryginalnego pisma, jeśli jej umiejętność została wzięta za nadnaturalną. Zapraszam do Wierszy Emilii Dickinson w przekładzie Teresy Pelka: zwrotka tematyczna, notki o inspiracji greką i łaciną, korelacie z Websterem 1828 oraz wątku arystotelesowskim, Rzecz perpetualna — ta nie zasadza się na czasie, ale na wieczności.
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