Language is a prerequisite for human reasoning abilities, and neural processes have been evidenced in natural language learning as well as use. Human parsing for language can be viewed as human processing of information, where terms as a system, program, and option, though correlative with computer science, cannot serve close a correspondence, since natural language as a capacity remains unmatched by artificial intelligence. Human neurophysiology is the primary reference for the following discourse on the role of feedback in human language command.

Living organisms use DNA-encoded information, for growth and sustainment. These genetic codes have been compared to programs (Young, 1984), where a program may be understood as a systematic plan for an automatic solution of a problem (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989). Biological life forms depend on structure continual regeneration for function (Young, 1984); therefore, the task of homeostasis uphold, to require inner biochemical selection and exchange, can serve an example of a biological problem, in context with natural programs as hitherto defined.

The systemic selection and exchange to concern the single cell and structures as complex as human beings, DNA patterns for active protein production can be regarded biological programs. Even basic programs for cellular activity rely on feedback for enactment (Vander et al., 1985), feedback in information processes to have been defined as returning of part the output of a system to be reintroduced as input (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989).

Positive and negative feedback types have been recognized, where the former, also known as regenerative feedback, aids the input, whereas the latter opposes it, hence the alternate term, “inverse feedback”. Elementary cellular functioning to accrue into schemata that allow learned behaviors, integrated neural patterns can be posited to rely on feedback for formation, effectuation, and permanence.

Based on use in control over routine patterns, Norbert Wiener insisted that feedback phenomena belonged with neuroscience as well. Neuro-physiologically and psychologically, feedback productiveness can be understood as a closed-loop capability over open-loop sequences (Puppel, 1988, 1996). No less than a requirement by the nervous system, the qualification would apply in natural speech and language. The system is studied for feedback phenomena in cellular, inter-cellular, and inter-schematic dimensions.

For a competent view to natural language, the inquiry also refers to human communication. Psycholinguistics to constitute the framework for the intended pursuit, feedback phenomena are studied in language acquisition and use, the discourse further to regard feedback deficit and human language faculty repair or compensation. Natural and principled occurrence to become affirmed for human neural and psychological function, feedback reliance shall be argued to approximate a drive, the relevant instinct to be that for self-preservation. In this view to human information processing, feedback would have the role of an initiating, mediating, and modeling factor.


■→Chapter 1. Neurophysiology of feedback 1.1. Feedback in the single neuron; 1.2. Space and time in neural communication; 1.3. Human systemic dynamics; 1.4. A reflex arc; 1.5. Human reflex and voluntary behavior; 1.6. Relevant neuro-motor patterns; 1.7. Sensory compensation; 1.8. The pool model for internal balance; 1.9. Signal specificity and the human brain.

Natural language remains a scope of skill unmatched by artificial parsing. Sophia is only an input-output device, capable of trading lexical items and responding with verbal routines.

I have never been interested in robotics and Sophia remains an it to me, a thing with a female name. I do not understand why the United Arab Emirates granted citizenship to an emulation of human personality.


The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.
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Świat może i nigdy nie widział jej oryginalnego pisma, jeśli jej umiejętność została wzięta za nadnaturalną. Zapraszam do Wierszy Emilii Dickinson w przekładzie Teresy Pelka: zwrotka tematyczna, notki o inspiracji greką i łaciną, korelacie z Websterem 1828 oraz wątku arystotelesowskim, Rzecz perpetualna — ta nie zasadza się na czasie, ale na wieczności.
Wolny dostęp,
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Okładka twarda
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