Language ability is prerequisite for reasoning skills, and neural processes have been evidenced in language learning as well as use. Human language processing can be viewed as human processing of information, where terms as a system, program, and option, though correlative with computer science, do not serve close a correspondence, since natural language remains a scope of skill unmatched by artificial parsing. Human neurophysiology is the primary reference for the following discourse on the role of feedback in human language command.

Living organisms use DNA-encoded information, in own growth and sustainment. These genetic codes have been compared to programs (Young, 1984), where a program may be understood as a systematic plan for an automatic solution of a problem (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989). Biological forms depend for activity on continued renewal of own structures (Young, 1984). The task of homeostasis uphold, to require component natural selection and exchange, can serve an example of a problem, for biological programs as hitherto defined.

The systemic selection and exchange to concern the single cell and structures as complex as human beings, a DNA pattern for active protein production may exemplify a biological program. Even basic programs for cellular activity rely on feedback for enactment (Vander et al., 1985), feedback to have been defined for information purposes as returning of part the output of a system to be reintroduced as input (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989).

Positive and negative feedback types have been recognized, where the former, also known as regenerative feedback, aids the input, whereas the latter opposes it, hence the alternate term, “inverse feedback”. Elementary cellular functioning to accrue into schemata that allow learned behaviors, integrated neural patterns can be posited to build on feedback for their formation, effectuation, and permanence.

Based on use in control of routine processes, Norbert Wiener insisted that feedback appertained with neuroscience as well. Neurophysiologically and psychologically, feedback productiveness can be understood as a closed-loop capability over open-loop sequences (Puppel, 1988, 1996). The capacity would act in natural language also as an effect by the nervous system. The system is studied for feedback phenomena in cellular, inter-cellular, and inter-schematic dimensions.

For a competent insight into natural language, the inquiry refers to human communication as an interplay of personal and inter-individual qualities. Psycholinguistics to be the framework of the intended quest, dependence on feedback is examined in language acquisition, use, and deficit. Natural and principled occurrence to become affirmed with regard to human neural and psychological functioning, feedback reliance shall be argued to approximate a drive, the relevant instinct to be that for self-preservation. In this view to human information processing, feedback would have the role of an initiating, mediating, and modeling factor.

■→Chapter 1. Neurophysiology of feedback 1.1. Feedback in the single neuron; 1.2. Space and time in neural communication; 1.3. Human systemic dynamics; 1.4. A reflex arc; 1.5. Human reflex and voluntary behavior; 1.6. Relevant neuro-motor patterns; 1.7. Sensory compensation; 1.8. The pool model for internal balance; 1.9. Signal specificity and the human brain.

Natural language remains a scope of skill unmatched by artificial parsing. Sophia is only an input-output device, capable of trading lexical items and responding with verbal routines.

I have never been interested in robotics and Sophia remains an it to me, a thing with a female name. I do not understand why the United Arab Emirates granted citizenship to an emulation of human personality.


The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.

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