Tests by Ladefoged showed speech and language dependence on feedback without exception. Human DNA requires cellular feedback for active protein, that is, everyday living. In tests on volunteers, human endurance under feedback impoverishment has proved lower than for fasting.
As a mathematical model, the ■→Hodgkin-Huxley hypothesis has lost prominence in neurophysiological study. The theory that cell membranes had ion channels yet remains affirmed by ■→Erwin Neher, ■→Bert Sakmann, and ■→Roderick MacKinnon. Cellular and systemic feedback is a fact of biological life; its importance approximates a drive.
The work here regards feedback as a biological phenomenon at the cellular level, examines its effects within the human nervous system, and analyzes the role in language. The term feedback performance denotes a closed-loop capability. It does not refer to evaluative behaviors that everyday language may connote. The notion of a drive does not involve any gender-oriented function. The work regards human nerve, muscle, and cognitive structures with strictly linguistic relevance. It did not require and does not solicit experimentation; all included results come from long-published and legal research on volunteers.
■→Introduction Language is prerequisite for human reasoning ability, and neural processes have been evidenced in natural language learning as well as use. Human processing for language can be viewed as human processing of information, where terms as a system, program, and option, though correlative with computer science, are not to serve close a correspondence, since language skill remains a scope unmatched by artificial parsing. Human neurophysiology is the primary reference for the following discourse on the role of feedback in human language command.
■→Chapter 1. Neurophysiology of feedback 1.1. Feedback in the single neuron; 1.2. Space and time in neural communication; 1.3. Human systemic dynamics; 1.4. A reflex arc; 1.5. Human reflex and voluntary behavior; 1.6. Relevant neuro-motor patterns; 1.7. Sensory compensation; 1.8. The pool model for internal balance; 1.9. Signal specificity and the human brain.
■→Chapter 2. The role of feedback in language learning
2.1. Language within a program perspective; 2.2. Neural network closed-loop forming; 2.3. Network feedback function; 2.4. Circular reactions; 2.5. Case’s executive theory; 2.6. Language development circular and feedback exercise; 2.7. The closed-loop behavior of egocentric language; 2.8.The generally feedback pattern in human learning and skill.
■→Chapter 3. The role of feedback in language use
3.1. Sensory signal processing by the brain; 3.2. Pathway length and efficiency; 3.3. The speech act; 3.4. Inner speech; 3.5. Orienting response of linguistic component; 3.6. Module autonomy theories; 3.7. Language universalist theories; 3.8. Feedback phenomena and cognition.