Human brains, parameters and devices

■→IN POLISH

Noam Chomsky proposed his ■→Language Acquisition Device to explain human language learning. People are most flexible to acquire language until some 14 years old; nobody is able merely to memorize language, and there has to be a logical capacity that works in the process. We can name it a device.

Dictionaries have a device for something devised, or a faculty that devises. Everyday language yet has a device for a thing that could be operated externally, from the outside. Association with such governance could not be my ideal.

Most of the 20th century, people insisted on specialization. Researchers had to work the particular, or were rejected as unscientific. Linguistics was separate from psychology, as neurology was from endocrine knowledge. Human speech was stated to belong with two brain areas, ■→Broca and ■→Wernicke.

Let us view Wernicke and Broca along with brain gnostic areas. ■→Henry Gray had the type of tissue for “psychic”.

Click to enlarge.

Areas of localization, hemisphere lateral surface: motor area in red; general sensations in blue; auditory area in green; visual area in yellow; psychic portions are in lighter tints.
■→Source: Gray; Wikimedia.

Why name the areas “gnostic” or “psychic”? For the senses, as hearing, eyesight, or touch, the brain uses primarily two types of tissue. The primary sensory cortex receives sense data. Its work is very similar in most people. It is only with the secondary cortex that a primary area can “translate” sense data into “brain codes”, that is, brain inner ways to communicate. These may be very different among people.

A baker view to bread is different from the look a buyer gives it. A painter may appreciate a landscape in tint, and a farmer in crops. Two bakers, artists, or farmers are likely to have two individual pictures. To an extent of course, human sensory knowledge is yet person-specific and psychological. It is this “psychic” secondary cortex to have sensory knowledge the way a particular person has developed it. The Greek word gnosis means knowledge. The word gnostic derives from it.

Broca's area animation

■→Broca area
Polygon Data, Wikimedia Creative Commons BY-SA JP
Broca belongs with brain gnostic matter for bodily movement.

Wernicke's area animation

■→Wernicke area
Polygon Data, Wikimedia Creative Commons BY-SA JP
Wernicke belongs with parietal associative tissue to neighbor on personal gnosis for hearing and eyesight.

Broca and Wernicke do not work in isolation. They work with brain broader cytostructure. We derive the word shape “cyto-” from Greek, for a bodily cell. Wernicke works with parietal, occipital, and temporal types of gray matter.

■→Parietal cytostructure
Polygon Data, Wikimedia Creative Commons BY-SA 2.1 JP

Damage to parietal function may cause dysphasia/aphasia, dyslexia, apraxia, and agnosia. All these are speech and language or related disorders, read more over ■→Wikipedia.

■→Occipital cytostructure
Polygon Data, Wikimedia Creative Commons BY-SA 2.1 JP

Occipital cytostructure has the primary and gnostic visual tissue for reading and writing. In language structure recognition, humans can be highly individual. About the lobe, read more over ■→Wikipedia.

■→Temporal cytostructure
Polygon Data, Wikimedia Creative Commons BY-SA 2.1 JP

Temporal gray cells have the primary and gnostic ability for hearing to include spoken language. ■→Wikipedia makes reference for visual processing as well, but that results from Wernicke function.

Wernicke's area animation

Wernicke works on all the three, parietal, occipital, and temporal types of cytostructure, yet by convention it is classed as belonging with one of them, the temporal lobe. Dependent on imaging, Wernicke may appear bigger. The convention is to recognize four major regions of gray.

Based on Gray, Wikimedia Commons.

Frontal lobes generally, not only motor secondary areas, are going to matter in our picture for brain language capability. We would not be able to say or write even one A or B, without goal-oriented thinking.

■→Frontal cytostructure
Polygon Data, Wikimedia ■→Creative Commons BY-SA JP

The major brain areas do not work as standalone “units” either, and humans have evolved language in earthly reality. Without any thought to time and space, human languages would become so different, that maybe we would not have them for human anymore.

The limbic system is part in human orienting responses of psychological components, as in the decision making when we look around, pick up a text, choose to abandon it or to read on. Limbic feedback with the frontal lobes is part our awareness of ourselves.

■→The limbic system
Blausen, Wikimedia ■→Creative Commons license BY 3.0.

PICTURE: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM
Click to enlarge.

The brainstem relays for the gray tissue, as well as the autonomic nervous system. It is very important in cognitive mapping. The mapping is part in our building own egos and language skills.

■→The brainstem
Blausen, Wikimedia ■→Creative Commons license BY 3.0.

PICTURE: THE BRAINSTEM
Click to enlarge.

This is why I prefer the notion of a human language faculty, over the Language Acquisition Device. Language skill needs the brain entire, and that regardless of age.

Feel welcome to read,
■→1. Neurophysiology of feedback


We are well into the 21st century now. Language and psychology have gotten along together well, as psycholinguistics. The discipline emerged in the second half of the 20th century, heart and reason against behaviorism. Even if our knowledge on human brains and languages is very general, we can comprehend this simple argument.

The brain does not have a singular superior structure we could call “the boss”. Brains make inner networks. One time, one network or its part is more active. Another time, it is another network or part of a network.

Whether to invoke a soul, a personality, or brain ■→epiphenomenon (when extremely tired), the human person orients and re-orients for own activity without a permanently dominant gyrus or sulcus. To entertain a political metaphor, brain structures would be more of a democracy. There is no king or queen tissue to preside.

The above is neither to ■→refute, nor to ■→aver on spirituality. As a broken leg is no proof the human never could walk, brain injury is no evidence there is nothing more to human heads than tissue. The other way round, runner or dancer legs are no evidence the person could walk just anywhere.

Brains make those inner networks within human individual experience, also when it is a purely intellectual experience. There is no universal way to see, hear, feel, or think, and behaviorist methods, that is, stimulation, cannot explain on a living brain and proficient language skill. Quality would be too much to give up on.


A D V E R T I S E M E N T

The world may never have seen her original handwriting, if her skill was taken for supernatural. Feel welcome to Poems by Emily Dickinson prepared for print by Teresa Pelka: thematic stanzas, notes on the Greek and Latin inspiration, the correlative with Webster 1828, and the Aristotelian motif, Things perpetual — these are not in time, but in eternity.

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This is why I do not see sense in recognizing “devices” in the brain and scanning them for parameters. Proficiency can be attained only via learning, never via a physiological or physical mend. Infant brain scans for example, cannot tell anything about the very same person’s language skill in just a few years. Feel welcome to read:
■→Apples on noses

There is yet sense to make logic that human brains can use. Here is some grammar tactics for American English.
■→Grammar Web Log, Travel in Grammar


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