The Role of Feedback in Language Processing

The work discusses human information processing, with focus to the role of feedback in language. Human information processing differs from artificial considerably.


Tests by Ladefoged showed speech and language dependence on feedback without exception.


Human DNA requires cellular feedback for active protein, that is, everyday function.


In tests on volunteers, human endurance under feedback impoverishment has proved lower than for fasting.


Not only on these grounds, the role of feedback in human language processing can be posited to approximate a drive.


I defended the thesis in year 2000, at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland, earning my philology M.A. degree in American English, specialization psycholinguistics.


The term language processing is not to imply that people can only operate on inputs or outputs. Humans are capable of creating own discourse. Our human talking or writing — as well as reading or comprehending spoken language — all yet depend on our neural processing.


As a mathematical model, the Hodgkin-Huxley hypothesis has lost prominence in neurophysiological study.


However, the theory that cell membranes had ion channels remains affirmed by Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann, and Roderick MacKinnon. Cellular and systemic feedback is fact.


We can reason about inner feedback on an example. Let us think we are talking with someone and the person asks us to put on headphones, to continue with limited hearing.


To keep on speaking, we would reflexly raise our voices to speak, unless we would have exercised not to do so.


Speaking loud would be an intuitive way to compensate for a constraint in auditory feedback. It is also a feedback capacity to learn to keep own voice down, despite auricular obstruction.


In persons of altered cognitive scopes, feedback interference can result in drive-like or driven behaviors. It is in unimpeded humans that the inner requirement for natural feedback approximates a drive.


The observation is to indicate a factor, not to try justifying all human activity.


Professor Stanisław Puppel of Adam Mickiewicz University generally mentioned the topic in class, in 1993. I began writing in 1999, and defended my work in year 2000, earning my Master of Arts degree in English philology, specialization American English and psycholinguistics.


Mr. Puppel was the supervising professor. The print is to be my authorial presentation, with notes.


The work takes up feedback as a biological phenomenon at the cellular level, examines feedback effects within the human nervous system, and analyzes their importance to human psychology as well as language learning, use, and deficit.


The term feedback performance denotes a closed-loop capability. It does not refer to evaluative or opinion-related behavior that everyday language may connote.


The notion of a drive does not involve any sex-oriented function. The work regards human nerve, muscle, and cognitive structures with strictly linguistic relevance.



Prerequisite for logical and scholarly ability, human language processing can be viewed as human processing of information.[1] Terms as a system, program, and option being necessary for analysis of information processing phenomena, notions correlative with computer science need not imply close a correspondence, as natural language remains a scope of skill unmatched by artificial parsing.[2] Therefore, human neurophysiology is the primary[3] reference, in the following discourse on the role of feedback in human language command.


Natural language remains a scope of skill unmatched by artificial parsing. Sophia is only a input-output device, capable of trading lexical items and responding with verbal routines.

I never have been interested in robotics and Sophia remains an it to me, a thing with a female name.


Live organisms have been observed to use DNA-encoded information, for growth and sustainment. These genetic codes have been compared to programs (Young, 1984), where a program may be understood as a systematic plan for an automatic solution of a problem (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989). Further, biological organisms have been posited to depend for activity, on development and continued renewal of own internal structures (Young, 1984). The task of homeostasis[4] uphold, to require substance biological selection and exchange within an environment, can serve an example of a problem,[5] for biological programs as hitherto described.


The systemic[6] selection and exchange to concern the single cell as well as complex structures such as human beings, a biological program may be exemplified by a DNA pattern for active protein production. Importantly, even basic programs of cellular activity can be claimed to rely on feedback for enactment (Vander et al., 1985), feedback to be defined here as returning of part the output of a system to be reintroduced as input (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989).


Positive and negative feedback processes have been recognized, where the former, also known as regenerative feedback, aids the input, whereas the latter opposes it, hence the alternate term “inverse feedback”. Elementary neural functioning to accrue into schemata[7] that allow learned behaviors, human neural patterns for activity are to be argued to build on feedback, regarding formation, effectuation, and permanence.


Norbert Wiener insisted that feedback processes appertained with neuroscience, based on the role in controlling automatic operations. Neurophysiologically and psychologically, feedback productiveness can be understood as a closed-loop capability over open-loop sequences (Puppel, 1988, 1996). The capacity would act in natural language, also as a function of the human nervous system. The system is to be studied for feedback phenomena in cellular, intercellular, and interschematic dimensions.


For a competent insight into natural language, the inquiry is to include human communication as an interplay of intra-individual and inter-individual qualities. Psycholinguistics[8] to constitute the framework for the intended quest, reliance on feedback is to be examined in language acquisition, use, and deficit. A principled[9] occurrence to become affirmed in neurophysiological as well as psychological aspects of human living, dependence on feedback shall be acknowledged to approximate a drive,[10] the relevant instinct to be that for self-preservation. In the view to human information processing, feedback would have the role of an initiating, mediating, and modeling factor.



[1] Human information processing: natural, biological and psychological operating on sense-data, with or without alteration to source or initial content.

[2] The Latin pars orationis meant a part of speech.

[3] Primary: first in development and fundamental. The discourse begins with reference to neurophysiology and continues with language psychology.

[4] Homeostasis: internal balance or relative equilibrium.

[5] Problem: a context that requires action or resolve, which does not have to mean perplexity or trouble, especially within information frameworks.

[6] Systemic: regarding system properties in a live structure. Please discern systemic from systematic, regular, measured.

[7] Schema, plural schemata, from Greek schema, form, shape, figure. Here, a schema is a biological structure, as a neural pattern or compound neural connectivity to act in accord. Please discern the use from schematic, as inflexible, mechanical, or mathematical.

[8] Psycholinguistics: a study of psychological factors in speech and language to regard learning, use, and deficit, inclusive of the biological background.

[9] Principled: expressive of a principle as a strong regularity of natural, unconditioned occurrence.

[10] Drive: a natural, unconditioned need or urge by a live organism, to originate in an instinct. The sense does not follow Freudian uses.




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