4. Feedback deficiency and language

Conscious human experience becomes possible with the person form for individual awareness, known as the human mind. Though it may never become defined in universal terms for constituents or inner composure, the mind has been recognized in function to consolidate thinking as well as feeling (Vander et al., 1985). Neurophysiology is capable of conditioned insight only, where cephalic activity is not detached from observation, or objectively determinant between people. The subsequent review on feedback deficiency will thus follow on two premises, where the neural reality of the brain is admitted indispensable for a living human activity in own mind, yet limitation, injury, or impairment is not allowed as measure in language unimpeded command.

4. 1. Feedback deficiency and language motor component

Cerebellar obstruction may result in ataxic dysarthria (Styczek, 1983), which cleaves the fine movement of the speech act into phono-articulatory segments. Accentuated syllabic sequences would show little or no differentiation for syntactic properties of predicates, complements, or structure heads. The person is aware of the deficit, yet handicapped in learning new motor patterns (Vander et al., 1985). The cerebellum is very important in management of speech and language open-loop aspects, but it cannot work without feedback with the cerebral cortex.

Brainstem belong with the linkage; the paths allow a degree of compensation over hampered corticospinal control (ibidem). Part uncrossed, impairment may cause disorders to speech segmentation as well as visual language processing, also when the cerebellar function is preserved. Injury may induce prolonged or permanent loss of consciousness known as coma.

Corticospinal tracts complement the brainstem connectivity in postural management, the compensation is yet never complete (Vander et al., 1985). Corticospinal connections assist the fine movement of fingers and hands, crossing for the body sides in the medulla oblongata. Damage slows, weakens, or even arrests motion, as in the grip of the hand. Corticospinal spasticity may increase articulatory effort, or make speech incomprehensible.

With injury, corticobulbar pathways might become divisive, in control of the muscles of the eyes, face, tongue, and throat. For undisturbed speech and language, the connectivity is classed with corticospinal communication, component in pyramidal tracts. The tracts work with feedback from motor neurons and interneurons of local expanse.

Human neural matter for language never is independent of intrinsic feedback. Efferent, hypoglossal or palatoglossal links connect with feedback scopes, the palatoglossus with the vagus nerve, the hypoglossus to arise in the medulla oblongata, an important coordinating structure in the brainstem. Tongue muscle distorted innervation may bring dyspraxias or apraxias, the morpheme dys– to imply better prospects for recovery (Styczek, 1983).

4.2. Feedback impediment and mind language function

Neural regeneration is considered higher in the periphery than in the CNS (Vander et al., 1985; Wortman et al., 1988), which yet does not prescribe on recovery. Brain powers for repair can work via path or link replacement. A theory worth considering, brain multiple exponents may join for skill restoration, when a person re-learns own ability. This would be inner feedback to inform the brain about loss, and feedback capabilities would cancel the impediment, provided the damage is not too vast. Restoration of a scope of mind may happen spontaneously, without therapist assistance (Wortman et al., 1988).

Language engages both brain hemispheres. Corpus callosum discord in conveyance can cause epileptic seizures and temporary or lasting language difficulty. Severance impedes acoustic and visual stimuli comprehension, disjoined brainwork to require hemispheric exposure for numbers, letters, or short words. Syntactic structures would favor dominant hemisphere co-actuation: the left to prevail statistically, humans differ in hemispheric specialization, (Akmajian et al., 1984).

Anomia may ensue with a lesion to the dominant angular gyrus (ibidem). The person may have difficulty in finding words or object naming, especially if expected to make a choice. Impact in early years of life may induce function transfer to the other hemisphere. The gyri have been described for their eminence in sensory signal synchronization, and management of compound parameters (Puppel, 1992).

Conduction dysphasia may ensue with tempoparietal failure. The tissue acts in synthesis of word meaning and form (Akmajian et al., 1984). Spoken or written discourse may retain fluency, yet become verbose and asyntactic. Neurological research ascribes the disorder to a diminished capacity by the Broca and Wernicke areas to communicate. Brain ability to communicate own structures may be helped with self-oriented exercise.

Described as a motor-kinesthetic aphasic, a patient improved with self-monitoring exercise (Tłokiński, 1982). A recording of his utterances was made; having listened to the tape, the patient became cognizant of own speech sound substitutions. Previously, therapist correction was unsuccessful. Glottodidactics, the practice to narrow the focus to articulation solely, continues to be questioned for unimpeded persons too.

In retrograde amnesia, memory of events around the time of incident may be irreparably lost (Wortman et al., 1988). Dependent on the circumstance for intrinsic feedback, neural links may never emerge. In the context, Wortman and Loftus describe hypnosis as potentially “extreme role playing”. Anterograde amnesia would be difficulty in neural path and schemata forming for new experience (1988).

4.3. Eyesight impediment and feedback-mediated compensation; 4.4. Hearing impediment and compensation; 4.5. Learning difficulty and feedback aptitude; 4.6. Schizophrenia: “human information metabolism”; 4.7. Conclusions.