1. Neurophysiology of feedback

Discourse on information processes requires terms as a system, program, option, signal, and feedback. Human logical skill does not act in denial of the nervous system. The system can be discussed as an information processing and managing structure, beginning with the single cell and ending with the subtle coordination by the brain. Congruence in terms of information may advance appreciation of feedback for a natural systemic occurrence.

1.1. Feedback in the single neuron

Positive and negative types of feedback have been evidenced in human nervous systems already at the level of individual cells, during change of bioelectric potential. As within the ionic hypothesis by Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley, natural action potentials engage positive feedback for the depolarizing phase. The active transport to provide for intra-cellular balance works on negative feedback (Vander et al., 1985)..

Action potentials to be brief, all-or-none reversals in neuron polarity (ibidem), natural language can be stated to use processing of options. Neuron singular impulses are yet more than likely to fall within systemic allowance for error, saltatory propagation to depend on combined synaptic effects. The basic level of nervous system structuring, individual cells are of result in higher neural variables only as part of networked efficacy, neural networks to build on neuron particular sites.

1.2. Space and time in intercellular communication

Individual neurons may communicate with thousands of synapses. Signals are initiated mostly by joined synaptic activity and launched in series. Integrant in neural diversity and specialization, spatial arrangement of synapses or cell receptors is of vital consequence, neuron particular sites to develop and evolve varied threshold capability within their expanse. With second messenger extrasynaptic interaction in areas of high-density non-myelinated brain tissue, spatial adjacency may decide neural conveyance. Receptor, synaptic or pacemaker graded potentials, as of autonomic structures, act only locally. Neural multiaspect is twined with signal place and type (Vander et al., 1985).

Neural communication time span yet cannot be disregarded, inhibitory and excitatory values to summate in real time. Feedback depends on the time extent for effect, in all neural transmission; speech and language will have the temporal constraint as well. Outcomes of neural correlativity will emerge with biological rather than mathematical functioning in place and time, that to degrees greater than assumed within theories of extrinsic timing (in Puppel, 1988).

The theories approve of the temporal aspect as extrinsic to the speech plan, the time span to be set on phonetic segments in speech act implementation phase. A major argument to the contrary may come with the property by human nervous systems constantly to show part preparatory actuation, diagnostic techniques as PET-scan or MRI {1} to focus on the degree of cellular engagement rather than its presence alone, since biological performance pertains with any living cell.

{1} When I was writing the thesis, the acronym was NMR. It is the same technology, only without the “nuclear” reference to cell nuclei (nucleus, singular).

Nonoperational in a process, neurons are not biologically inactive, cell resting state to be interior dynamic balance with exterior. Intrinsic in timing, neuron homeostatic activity may bring action potentials. However, excitation as in an isolated cell is predictable only in terms of statistic approximation (Vander et al., 1985).

The intrinsic timing to embrace compound qualities in neural summation, principles of biological activity have been premised to correspond at lower and higher levels of systemic structuring (M. Coles and P. Duncan-Jones in Ciarkowska, 1993). In keeping with the position, feedback reliance would hold as a natural phenomenon for the single neuron, as well as language capable networks in the brain.

1.3. Human systemic dynamics

Neural bonding for language forms into schemata or networks, with no singular master control region or center in the brain. Human schemata may embody speech sound or letter shape representations, likely of multiple exponence; networks are indispensable in neural planning for spoken or written discourse (Puppel, 1992). The relationship between neural activity and motor behavior is difficult to detect or measure, as cells live in intrinsic actuation (Vander et al). Observably however, speech and language employ feedback inner dynamics rather than strictly a hierarchy.

Brain neocortex is the tissue of the highest intricacy; brainstem reticular structure is yet vital to mediate neural transmission for the systemic long distance. Reticular projections help guide multisynaptic pathways and communicate the autonomic, central, and peripheral nervous system. The brainstem has been indicated for neural information processing by ten cranial nerves, of the twelve. It helps harmonize eye movement, cardiovascular and respiratory performance, neural patterns for sleep, as well as those for wakefulness and focused behavior, inclusive of learning generally and language (ibidem).

A subcortical body, the brainstem assists phonation and language visual processing, whereas cortical activity may influence breathing, the very reticular form to convey the cortical signal. Autonomic coordination is direct, in the pupillary or smooth muscle rapport for speech, reading, or writing.

John Lacey’s experiments on environment stereotyped intake or rejection (in Ciarkowska, 1993), were to explore on human systemic congruity. He detected and described a cerebral influence over cardiac outputs that held for people evaluating their concurrent experimental contexts, as well as persons expected to predict on developments. The researcher reported a pattern wider than direct response and pointed to afferent feedback, for the impression by intellective faculties over autonomic lifework.

Engel, Malmo, and Shagass (ibidem) proceeded further with the notion of psychosomatic variance, to posit person-specific patterns in neurophysiological function. They stated the parameters corresponded with psychological tasks, thus to announce a learned factor in autonomic actuation. Autonomic activity is supposed naturally reflex, outside aware control: the individuate negotiation would solicit systemic feedback.

1.4. A reflex arc; 1.5. Human reflex and voluntary behavior; 1.6. Relevant neuro-motor patterns; 1.7. Sensory compensation; 1.8. The pool model for internal balance; 1.9. Signal specificity and the human brain.